Wednesday, 9 April 2014

Rise of nationalism in Europe

Class X


The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

Frederic Sorrieu’ dream on Nationalism

1.      In 1848, FrĂ©dĂ©ricSorrieu, a French artist, prepared a series of four prints visualising his dream of a world made up of ‘democratic and social Republics’.
2.       It shows the peoples of Europe and America marching in a long train, and offering homage to the statue of Liberty as they pass by it.
3.      On the earth in the foreground of the image lie the shattered remains of the symbols of absolutistinstitutions.
4.      United States and Switzerland, which by this time were already nation-states. France has just reached the statue.
5.      Following the French people, peoples of Germany, Austria, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Lombardy, Poland, England, Ireland, Hungary and Russia are marching in the long train. From the heavens above, Christ, saints and angels gaze upon the scene.


Nation-statewas one in which the majority of itscitizenscame to develop a sense of commonidentity and shared history or descent.

The French revolutionariesintroduced various measures and practices thatcould create a sense of collective identity amongstthe French people.

1.      The ideas of la patrie(thefatherland) and le citoyen(the citizen) emphasized the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a new constitution.
2.      A new French flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replacethe former royal standard.
3.      The Estates General was renamed as the National Assembly and its members were elected by thebody of active citizens.
4.      New hymnwas composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated, all in the name of the nation. (Marseillaise,composed by the poet Roget de L Isle was sung for the first time byvolunteers from Marseillesas they marched into Paris and so got itsname. The Marseillaise is now the national anthem of France)
5.      A centralized administrative systemwas put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizenswithin its territory.
6.      Internal customs duties and dues were abolishedand a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.
7.      Regional dialects were discouraged and French, as it was spokenand written in Paris, became the National language of the nation.

Napoleon introduced various reforms in France

1.      Napoleon had, no doubt, destroyed democracy in France and reintroduced Monarchy.
2.      Inthe administrative field he had incorporated revolutionary principlesin order to make the whole system more rational and efficient.
3.      TheCivil Code of 1804 – usually known as the Napoleonic Code was introduced.
4.      The Civil Code did away with all privileges based on birth.
5.      The Civil Code established equality among all the citizens before the law and secured the right to property.

Napoleon introduced various reforms in of territory that came under his control

1.      TheCivil Code of 1804 – usually known as the Napoleonic Code –did away with all privileges based on birth, established equalitybefore the law and secured the right to property. This Code wasexported to the regions under French control.
2.       In Dutch Republic,Switzerland, Italy and Germany, Napoleon simplifiedadministrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freedpeasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
3.       In the towns guildrestrictions were removed. Transport and communication systemswere improved.
4.      Peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmenenjoyed a new-found freedom.
5.      He introduced uniformlaws, standardised weights and measures, and a common nationalcurrency would facilitate the movement and exchange of goodsand capital from one region to another.

What were the reactions of the local populations to Napoleonic rule in the newly captured territories?

1.       Initially, in Holland, Switzerland, Belgium, Germany, Italy and Poland, the French armies were welcomed asharbingers of liberty.
2.      But the initial enthusiasm soon turned to hostility,as it became clear that the new administrative arrangements did notgo hand in hand with political freedom.
3.      Because Napoleon increased taxation in these regions.
4.      Napoleonintroduced censorship
5.       Napoleonintroduced forced recruitment of people into the French armies which required conquering the rest of Europe.

The Habsburg Empire that ruled over Austria-Hungary was a patchwork of many different regions and peoples- Discuss

1.       Austria-Hungary included the Alpine regions, Tyrol, Austria, Sudetenland and Bohemia where the aristocracy was predominantly German-speaking.
2.      Austria-Hungary alsoincluded the Italian-speaking provinces of Lombardy and Venetia.
3.      In Hungary, half of the population spoke Magyar while the otherhalf spoke a variety of dialects.
4.      In Galicia, the aristocracy spokePolish.
5.      Besides these three dominant groups, there also lived withinthe boundaries of the empire, a mass of subject peasant peoples –Bohemians and Slovaks to the north, Slovenes in Carniola, Croatsto the south, and Roumans to the east in Transylvania.

How did nationalism and the idea of the nation-state emerge in Europe?

a)    Growth of New Middle Class

1.      In Western and parts of Central Europe the growth of industrialproduction and trade led to the growth of towns and cities.
2.      This led to the emergenceof commercial classes and new social groups such as middle class. (middle classes made up of industrialists, businessmen, professionals)
3.      In Central and Eastern Europe these groups were smaller in numbertill late nineteenth century. It was among the educated, liberal middleclasses that ideas of national unity following the abolition ofaristocratic privileges gained popularity.

b)    Liberal Nationalism

1.       The term ‘liberalism’ derivesfrom the Latin root liber, meaning free. For the new middle classesliberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of allbefore the law.
2.      Politically, liberalism emphasisedthe end of autocracy and clerical privileges, a constitution andrepresentative government through parliament.
3.    In the economic sphere, liberalism stood for the freedom of marketsand the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movementof goods and capital.

c)    New Conservatism

1.      Conservatism – A political philosophy that stressed the importance of tradition, like themonarchy, the Church, social hierarchies, property and the family – should be preserved
2.      Following the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, European governmentswere driven by a spirit of conservatism. Most conservatives did not proposea return to the society of pre-revolutionary days. Rather, they realized that from the changes initiated by Napoleon (Modernization) we can strengthen traditional institutions like the monarchy.
3.      Modernizationcouldmake state power more effective and strong. A modern army, anefficient bureaucracy, a dynamic economy, the abolition of feudalismand serfdom could strengthen the autocratic monarchies of Europe. This is called new Conservatism.

d)    Changes introduced in Vienna Congress

1.      In 1815, representatives of the European powers – Britain, Russia,Prussia and Austria – who had collectively defeated Napoleon, metat Vienna to draw up a settlement for Europe. The Congress washosted by the Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich.
2.      The delegatesdrew up the Treaty of Vienna of 1815 with the object of undoingmost of the changes that had come about in Europe during theNapoleonic wars.
3.      The Bourbon dynasty, which had been deposedduring the French Revolution, was restored to power, and Francelost the territories it had annexed under Napoleon.
4.      A series of stateswere set up on the boundaries of France to prevent French expansionin future. Thus the kingdom of the Netherlands, which includedBelgium, was set up in the north and Genoa was added to Piedmontin the south. Prussia was given important new territories on its westernfrontiers, while Austria was given control of northern Italy.
5.      But theGerman confederation of 39 states that had been set up by Napoleonwas left untouched. In the east, Russia was given part of Polandwhile Prussia was given a portion of Saxony.

e)     The Revolutionaries

1.      After 1815, the fear of repression drove manyliberal-nationalists underground. Secret societies sprang up in manyEuropean states to train revolutionaries and spread their ideas.
2.      Tobe a revolutionary one has to have a commitment to oppose monarchical forms, fight for liberty and freedom. Most of theserevolutionaries also saw the creation of nation-states as a necessarypart of this struggle for freedom.
3.      Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Mazzini was born in Genoa in 1807and became a member of the secret societyof the Carbonari. As a young man of 24, he was sent into exile in1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria.
4.      He subsequently foundedtwo more underground societies, first, Young Italy in Marseilles,and Young Europe in Berne, whose members were like-mindedyoung men from Poland, France, Italy and the German states.
5.      Mazzini believed that Italy had to be forged into a single unifiedrepublic and this unification alonecould be the basis of Italian liberty. Metternichdescribed him as ‘the most dangerous enemy of our social order’.

Period from1830-1848 was described as the Age of Revolutions

1.      The first upheaval took place in France in July 1830. The Bourbonkings, who had been restored to power during the conservativereaction after 1815, were now overthrown by liberal revolutionarieswho installed a constitutional monarchy with Louis Philippe at itshead.
2.      The July Revolution of France sparked an uprising inBrussels which led to Belgium breaking away from the UnitedKingdom of the Netherlands.
3.      Greece hadbeen part of the Ottoman Empire since the fifteenth century. Thegrowth of revolutionary nationalism in Europe sparked off a strugglefor independence in 1821.Nationalists in Greece got support from other Greeks living in exileand also from many West Europeans. Finally, the Treaty of Constantinople of 1832recognized Greece as an independent nation.
4.      In 1848 food shortages and widespreadunemployment brought the population of Paris out on the roads.Louis Philippe was forced to flee. ANational Assembly proclaimed a Republic, granted suffrage to alladult males above 21, and guaranteed the right to work. France became a republic.
5.       Earlier, in 1845, weavers in Silesia had led a revolt against contractorswho supplied them raw material and gave them orders for finishedtextiles but drastically reduced their payments.

The Romantic Imagination and National Feeling( Role of culture for the growth of Nationalism in Europe)

1.      Romanticism, a cultural movement in which culture played an important role increating the idea of the nation. Such as art, poetry, stories and musichelped express and shape nationalist feelings.
2.      Romantics such as the German philosopher Johann GottfriedHerder claimed that true German culture was to bediscovered among the common people throughfolk songs, folk poetry and folk dances that the true spirit of thenation was popularized. So collecting and recording theseforms of folk culture was essential to the project of nation-building.
3.      Romantics of Polandemphasized on vernacular language and the collection of localfolklore to recover an ancient national spirit. National feelings were keptalive through music and language in Poland.
4.      Karol Kurpinskicelebrated the national struggle through his operas and music, turningfolk dances like the polonaise and mazurka into nationalist symbols.Language too played an important role in developing nationalistsentiments.
5.      After Russian occupation, the Polish language was forcedout of schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere.In 1831, an armed rebellion against Russian rule took place. Following this, Polish was used for Church gatherings and all religious instruction.The use of Polish came to be seen as asymbol of the struggle against Russian dominance.

Silesian Revolt (The journalist Wilhelm Wolff described the events in a Silesian village as follows)

1.      In Silesian village cotton weaving is the most widespread occupation. The misery of the workers isextreme. The contractors reduced the prices of the goods they order.
2.      On 4 June 1845 a large crowd of weavers emerged fromtheir homes and marched in pairs up to the mansion of theircontractor demanding higher wages. They were treated withscorn and threats alternately.
3.      Following this, a group of themforced their way into the house, smashed its elegant windowpanes,furniture, porcelain … another group broke into thestorehouse and plundered it of supplies of cloth which they tore to shreds.
4.       The contractor fled with his family to aneighbouring village which, however, refused to shelter such aperson.
5.      He returned 24 hours later having requisitioned the army.In the exchange that followed, eleven weavers were shot dead.

1848 was described as the Revolution of the Liberals

1.      In 1848 food shortages and widespreadunemployment brought the population of Paris out on the roads.Louis Philippe was forced to flee. ANational Assembly proclaimed a Republic, granted suffrage to alladult males above 21, and guaranteed the right to work. France became a republic.
2.      In Germany, Italy, Poland, the Austro-HungarianEmpire – men and women of the liberal middle classes combinedtheir demands for the creation of a nation-state on parliamentaryprinciples – a constitution, freedom of the press and freedomof association.
3.      On 18 May 1848,831 elected representatives of German Confederation marched in a festive procession to taketheir places in the Frankfurt parliament convened in the Church ofSt Paul. They drafted a constitution for a German nation to beheaded by a monarchy subject to a parliament.
4.      When the deputiesoffered the crown on these terms to Friedrich Wilhelm IV, King ofPrussia, he rejected it and joined other monarchs to oppose theelected assembly.
5.      Women had formed theirown political associations, founded newspapers and taken part inpolitical meetings and demonstrations. After 1848, the autocraticmonarchies of Central and Eastern Europe began to introduce some changes like abolition of serfdom, bonded labouretc.

Unification of Germany

1.      In 1848Germans tried to unitethe different regions of the German confederation into a nation-stategoverned by an elected parliament. This liberal initiative to nation-buildingwas, however, repressed by the combined forces of the monarchy andthe military, supported by the large landowners (called Junkers) of Prussia.
2.      Prussia’s chief minister, Otto vonBismarck, was the architect of unification process the help of the Prussian army andbureaucracy.
3.      Three wars over seven years – withAustria, Denmark and France – ended in Prussianvictory and completed the process of unification.
4.      In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I,was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremonyheld at Versailles.
5.      The nation-building process in Germany haddemonstrated the dominance of Prussian statepower. The new state placed a strong emphasison modernising the currency, banking, legaland judicial systems in Germany. Prussianmeasures and practices often became a model forthe rest of Germany.

Unification of Italy

1.       Italy was divided into seven states, of whichonly one, Sardinia-Piedmont, was ruled by an Italian princely house.The north was under Austrian Habsburgs, the centre was ruled bythe Pope and the southern regions were under the dominationof the Bourbon kings of Spain.
2.      During the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini formed a secret society called Young Italy and organized two revolutions for the unification of Italy but failed.
3.      Sardinia-Piedmont underits ruler King Victor Emmanuel II took initiative to unify the Italian states throughwar. Cavour, the Chief Minister of Sardinia-Piedmont led the movement to unify the regionsof Italy was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat.
4.      Through a tactful diplomaticalliance with France engineered by Cavour, Sardinia-Piedmontsucceeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859 and captured north.
5.       Apart from regulartroops, a large number of armed volunteers under the leadership ofGiuseppe Garibaldi joined the fray. In 1860, they marched into SouthItaly and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and succeeded in winningthe support of the local peasants in order to drive out the Spanishrulers. In 1861 Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of unitedItaly.

Unification of Britain and its strange way for unification

1.       There was no British nationprior to the eighteenth century. The primary identities of the peoplewho inhabited the British Islands were ethnic ones – such as English,Welsh, Scot or Irish. All of these ethnic groups had their own culturaland political traditions. But the English nation was wealthy and powerful.
2.      The English parliament, whichhad seized power from the monarchy in 1688 at the end of aprotracted conflict, was the instrument through which a nation-state,with England at its centre, came to be forged.
3.      The Act of Union(1707) between England and Scotland that resulted in the formationof the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’. England was able to impose its influence on Scotland. English members dominated the Britishparliament, Scotland’s distinctive cultureand political institutions were systematically suppressed, Catholicclans of Scottish Highlands suffered terrible repression, ScottishHighlanders were forbidden to speak their Gaelic language or wear their national dress and large numbers were forcibly drivenout of their homeland.
4.      Ireland suffered a similar fate. It was a country deeply dividedbetween Catholics and Protestants. The English helped the Protestantsof Ireland to establish their dominance over a largely Catholic country.Catholic revolts against British dominance were suppressed.
5.      After afailed revolt led by Wolfe Tone and his United Irishmen (1798),Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801.A new ‘British nation’ was forged through the propagation of adominant English culture. The British flag,the national anthem, the English language – were actively promoted and the oldernations survived only as subordinate partners in this union.

Visualizing or personifying the Nation

1.      Artists inthe 18th and 19thcenturies found a way out bypersonifying a nationas female figures.The female form that was chosen to personify the nation did notstand for any particular woman in real life.This femalefigure became an allegory (symbol)of the nation.
2.      During the French Revolution artists used thefemale allegory to portray ideas such as Liberty, Justice and theRepublic. These ideals were represented through specific objects orsymbols.
3.      The attributes of Liberty are thered cap, or the broken chain, while Justice is generally a blindfoldedwoman carrying a pair of weighing scales.Similar female allegories were invented by artists in the nineteenthcentury to represent the nation.
4.      In France female allegory was Marianne, a popular Christian name, which underlined the idea of apeople’s nation. Statuesof Marianne were erected in public squares to remind the public ofthe national symbol of unity and to persuade them to identify withit. Marianne images were marked on coins and stamps.
5.      Germania became the allegory of the German nation. Invisual representations, Germania wears a crown of oak leaves, asthe German oak stands for heroism.

Balkans became the most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871 (OR) Nationalism, aligned with imperialism, led Europe to disaster in 1914
1.      The Balkans was a region comprising modern-day Romania,Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina,Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro whose inhabitants were broadlyknown as the Slavs.
2.      A large part of the Balkans was under the controlof the Ottoman Empire. The spread of the ideas of romanticnationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of theOttoman Empire made this region very explosive.
3.      As the different Slavic nationalities struggled to define their identityand independence, the Balkan area became an area of intense conflict.The Balkan states were fiercely jealous of each other and each hopedto gain more territory at the expense of the others.

4.      Matters werefurther complicated because the big European powers ( Russia, Germany, France, Britain and Austria- Hungary)had rivalry over trade and colonies as well as naval andmilitary might and to hold power over the Balkans and extending their control over the area.
5.      Thisled to a series of wars in the region and finally the First World War.Nationalism, aligned with imperialism, led Europe to disaster in 1914.

Friday, 14 February 2014

Democratic Rights


Violation of Citizens’ rights by the USA

1.      About 600 people were secretly picked up by the US forces from all over the world and put in a prison in Guantanamo Bay, an area near Cuba controlled by America’s Navy.
2.      The American government said that they were enemies of the US and linked to the attack on New York on 11 September 2001.
3.      Families of prisoners, media or even UN representatives were not allowed to meet them. The US army arrested them, interrogated them and decided to keep them there. There was no trial before any magistrate in the US
4.      Amnesty International, an international human rights organisation, collected information on the condition of the prisoners in Guantanamo Bay and reported that the prisoners were being tortured in ways that violated the US laws.
5.      Prisoners were not released even after they were officially declared not guilty. An independent inquiry by the UN supported these findings. The UN Secretary General said the prison in Guantanamo Bay should be closed down. The US government refused to accept these pleas.

Violation of Citizens’ Rights in Saudi Arabia

1.      The country is ruled by a hereditary king and the people have no role in electing or changing their rulers.
2.      The king selects the legislature as well as the executive. He appoints the judges and can change any of their decisions.
3.      Citizens cannot form political parties or any political organisations. Media cannot report anything that the monarch does not like.
4.      There is no freedom of religion. Every citizen is required to be Muslim. Non-Muslim residents can follow their religion in private, but not in public.
5.      Women are subjected to many public restrictions. The testimony of one man is considered equal to that of two women.

Violation of Citizens’ Rights in Yugoslavia (Kosovo)

1.      Kosovo was a province of Yugoslavia before its split. In this province the population was overwhelmingly ethnic Albanian muslims. But in the entire country, Serbs(Christians) were in majority.
2.      A narrow minded Serb nationalist Milosevic had won the election. His government was very hostile to the Kosovo Albanians. He wanted the Serbs to dominate the country. Many Serb leaders thought that Ethnic minorities like Albanians should either leave the country or accept the dominance of the Serbs.
3.      74-year-old Batisha Hoxha was sitting in her kitchen with her 77- year–old husband Izet, staying warm by the stove. She knew, five or six soldiers had burst through the front door and were demanding her children.
4.      They shot Izet three times in the chest. When her husband dying, the soldiers pulled the wedding ring off and even before she comes out of the house they burnt her house.
5.      This was typical of what happened to thousands of Albanians in that period. This was one of the worst instances of killings based on ethnic prejudices in recent times. Finally Milosevic lost power and was tried by an International Court of Justice for crimes against humanity.

What are rights?

 Rights are reasonable claims of persons recognised by society and sanctioned by law.

Why do we need rights in a democracy? (OR) Rights are necessary for the very sustenance of a democracy.

1.      In a democracy every citizen has to have the right to vote and the right to be elected to government.
2.      For democratic elections to take place it is necessary that citizens should have the right to express their opinion, form political parties and take part in political activities.
3.      Rights protect minorities from the oppression of majority. They ensure that the majority cannot do whatever it likes. Rights are guarantees which can be used when things go wrong.
4.      The government should protect the citizens’ rights. But sometimes elected governments may not protect or may even attack the rights of their own citizens.
5.      That is why some rights need to be placed higher than the government, so that the government cannot violate these. In most democracies the basic rights of the citizen are written down in the constitution.

What is Right to Equality? How does it apply in providing equality, liberty and justice to Indians?

1.       Right to equality means that the laws apply in the same manner to all, regardless of a person’s status. This is called the rule of law. Rule of law is the foundation of any democracy.
2.      It means that no person is above the law. There cannot be any distinction between a political leader, government official and an ordinary citizen.
3.      The government shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds of religion, caste, ethnicity, sex or place of birth.
4.      Every citizen shall have access to public places like shops, restaurants, hotels, and cinema halls. Similarly, there shall be no restriction with regard to the use of wells, tanks, bathing Ghats, roads, playgrounds and places of public resorts maintained by government or dedicated to the use of general public.
5.      The same principle applies to public jobs. All citizens have equality of opportunity in matters relating to employment or appointment to any position in the government. No citizen shall be discriminated against or made ineligible for employment on the grounds mentioned above.
6.      The Constitution mentions one extreme form of social discrimination, the practice of untouchability, and clearly directs the government to put an end to it. The practice of untouchability has been forbidden in any form.

What is Right to Freedom? What are the kinds of freedom given to the Indians?

Right to Freedom means absence of interference in our affairs by others – be it other individuals
or the government.
1.      Indian Constitution gives the right to Freedom of speech and expression
2.      Right to Freedom to assemble in a peaceful manner
3.      Right to Freedom to form associations and unions
4.      Right to Freedom to move freely throughout the country
5.      Right to Freedom to reside in any part of the country
6.      Right to Freedom to practice any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade or business.
7.      Citizens have the freedom to hold meetings, processions, rallies and demonstrations on any issue.
8.      Your freedoms should not cause public nuisance or disorder. You are free to do everything which injures no one else

Rules to be followed by the government or police officer when arrest or detain any citizen

1.      A person who is arrested and detained in custody will have to be informed of the reasons for such arrest and detention.
2.      A person who is arrested and detained shall be produced before the nearest magistrate within a period of 24 hours of arrest.
3.      Such a person has the right to consult a lawyer or engage a lawyer for his defense.
4.      Such a person not be tortured or beaten.
5.      Such a person to be allowed to meet his family members and relatives.

Right against Exploitation (What are three specific evils which are declared illegal in the constitution?)

1.       Constitution makers thought it was necessary to write down certain clear provisions to prevent exploitation of the weaker sections of the society. The Constitution mentions three specific evils and declares these illegal.
2.      First, the Constitution prohibits ‘traffic in human beings’. Traffic here means selling and buying of human beings, usually women, for immoral purposes.
3.      Second, our Constitution also prohibits forced labour or begar in any form. ‘Begar’ is a practice where the worker is forced to render service to the ‘master’ free of charge or at a nominal remuneration.
4.      Constitution also prohibits child labour. No one can employ a child below the age of fourteen to work in any factory or mine or in any other hazardous work, such as railways and ports.
5.      Using this as a basis many laws have been made to prohibit children from working in industries such as beedi making, firecrackers and matches, printing and dyeing.

How is Right to Freedom of Religion practiced in India?

1.      Secularism is based on the idea that the state is concerned only with the relation between human beings and God. A secular state is one that does not establish any one religion as official religion.
2.      Every person has a right to profess, practice and propagate the religion he or she believes in. Every religious group or sect is free to manage its religious affairs. A right to propagate one’s religion, however, does not mean that a person has right to compel another person to convert into his religion by means of force, fraud, inducement or allurement.
3.      Freedom to practice religion does not mean that a person can do whatever he wants in the name of religion. For example, one cannot sacrifice animals or human beings as offerings to supernatural forces or gods. Religious practices which treat women as inferior are not allowed.
4.      Discrimination against people on the basis of religion is not allowed. Thus the government cannot compel any person to pay any taxes for the promotion or maintenance of any particular religion or religious institution.
5.      There shall be no religious instruction in the government educational institutions. In educational institutions managed by private bodies no person shall be compelled to take part in any religious instruction or to attend any religious worship.

What are the guarantees given under the Cultural and Educational Rights?

1.      The language, culture and religion of minorities that needs special protection. Otherwise, they may get neglected or undermined by the majority. That is why the Constitution specifies the cultural and educational rights of the minorities.
2.      Any section of citizens with a distinct language or culture has a right to conserve it.
3.      Admission to any educational institution maintained by government or receiving government aid cannot be denied to any citizen on the ground of religion or language.
4.      All minorities have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice.
5.      Here minority does not mean only religious minority at the national level. In some places people speaking a particular language are in majority; people speaking a different language are in a minority.

 How can we secure the fundamental rights? (Right to Constitutional Remedies)

1.       The fundamental rights in the Constitution are important because they are enforceable. We have a right to seek the enforcement of the above mentioned rights. This is called the Right to Constitutional Remedies.
2.      This is a Fundamental Right. This right makes other rights effective. It is possible that sometimes our rights may be violated by fellow citizens, private bodies or by the government. When any of our rights are violated we can seek remedy through courts.
3.       If it is a Fundamental Right we can directly approach the Supreme Court or the High Court of a state. That is why Dr. Ambedkar called the Right to Constitutional Remedies, ‘the heart and soul’ of our Constitution.
4.      Courts also enforce the Fundamental Rights against private individuals and bodies. The Supreme Court and High Courts have the power to issue directions, orders or writs for the enforcement of the Fundamental Rights.
5.      Fundamental Right, if it is of social or public interest. It is called Public Interest Litigation (PIL). Under the PIL any citizen or group of citizens can approach the Supreme Court or a High Court for the protection of public interest against a particular law or action of the government.

EXPANDING SCOPE OF RIGHTS (Constitutional Rights)

1.       While Fundamental Rights are the source of all rights, our Constitution and law offers a wider range of rights. Over the years the scope of rights has expanded. From time to time, the courts gave judgments to expand the scope of rights.
2.      Now school education has become a right for Indian citizens. The governments are responsible for providing free and compulsory education to all children up to the age of 14 years.
3.       Parliament has enacted a law giving the right to information to the citizens. We have a right to seek information from government offices.
4.       Recently the Supreme Court has expanded the meaning of the right to life to include the right to food.
5.      The right to property and right to vote in elections are important constitutional rights.

Constitution of South Africa guarantees its citizens several kinds of new rights:

1.      Right to privacy, so that citizens or their home cannot be searched, their phones cannot be tapped, their communication cannot be opened.
2.      Right to an environment that is not harmful to their health or wellbeing.
3.      Right to have access to adequate housing.
4.      Right to have access to health care services, sufficient food and water; no one may be refused emergency medical treatment.

Human right activists all over the world seek a set of rights as a standard of human rights. These include:

1.      Right to work: opportunity to everyone to earn livelihood by working.
2.      Right to safe and healthy working conditions, fair wages that can provide decent standard of living for the workers and their families
3.      Right to adequate standard of living including adequate food, clothing and housing.
4.      Right to social security and insurance.
5.      Right to health: medical care during illness, special care for women during childbirth and prevention of epidemics
6.      Right to education: free and compulsory primary education, equal access to higher education.