Saturday, 6 December 2014

XII History Sample Paper ( part-I)

Sample paper 2014-15( Part-I)
Class: XII                                                                                                                              Time:2 Hours
Subject: History                                                                                                                 Marks: 50

a)    Answer all the questions. Some questions have internal choice. Marks are indicated against each question.
b)    Answer to questions carrying 2 marks (Part A 1 to 3) should not exceed 30 words each.
c)    Answer to questions carrying 5 marks (Part B Section I, II, III & IV - Questions 4 to 14 should not exceed 100 words each.
d)    Answer to questions carrying 10 marks (Part C Questions 15 and 16) should not exceed 500 words each.
e)    Part D questions are based on 3 sources( Part-C Questions 17 to19)
f)     Attach maps with the answer scripts (Part E)

Answer the following questions                                                                                       (3X2=6)

1.      Write a note on the weights and measures used by the Harappa people.                                               
2.      What were the two processes involved in integration of cult according to historians?                              
PART-B (Section- I)
Answer any three questions                                                                                       (3X5=15)

3.      How did the Magadha kingdom become powerful during the 6th to 4th century B.C in five points?        
4.      Explain the major and important teachings of Jainism in five points.                                                        
5.      Analyse the text Mahabharata on any five elements.                                                                                          
6.      Discuss the development in sculpture and architecture associated with rise of vaishnavism and Shaivism in five points.                                                                                                                                                           
PART-B (Section-II)
Answer any two questions                                                                                          (2X5=10)

7.      Discuss the ways in which the Alvars and Nayanars spread the Bhakthi movement?                                
8.      Discuss (any three) features of Mahanavami Dibba with (any four) ceremonies associated with it.                                                                                                                                                                       
Answer the following questions

9.      Explain the roles village Panjayats and Jati Panjayats regulated rural society.                         5+5=10
How was the city Hambi discovered? Explain the contribution of Krishnadeve Raya for the expansion of Vijayanagara Empire.                                                                                                       5+5=10
10.  Read the given passage carefully and answer the questions that follow :

Prabhavati Gupta and the village of Danguna
This is what Prabhavati Gupta states in her inscription :Prabhavati Gupta ... commands the gramakutumbinas (householders/peasants living in the village). Brahmanas and others living in the village of Danguna.
“Be it known to you that on the twelfth (lunar day) of the bright (fortnight) of Karttika, in order to increase our religious merit donated this village with the pouring out of water, to the Acharya (teacher) Chanalasvam in... You should obey all (his) commands ... We confer on (him) the following exemptions typical of an agrahara ... (this village is) not to be entered by soldiers and policemen : (it is) exempt from (the obligation to provide) grass, (animal) hides as seats, and charcoal (to touring royal offices); exempt from (the royal prerogative of) purchasing fermenting liquors and digging (salt); exempt from (the right to) mines and khadira trees; exempt from (the obligation to supply) flowers and milk; (it is donated) together with (the right to) hidden treasures and deposits (and) together with major and minor taxes...” This charter has been written in the thirteenth (regnal) year. (It has been) engraved by Chakradasa.

(i)                  Who had issued this inscription?                                                                                                           1
(ii)                Why does she want to donate the land? Who is the receiver of the land?                                                2
(iii)               What were the exemptions conferred on a typical agrahara land?                                                         2
(iv)              State the significance of this source in three points.                                                                     3                                                           
The most ancient system yet discovered
            About the drains, Mackay noted: “It is certainly the most complete ancient system as yet discovered.” Every rouse was connected to the street drains. The main channels were made of bricks set in mortar and were covered with loose bricks that could be removed for cleaning. In some cases, limestone was used for the covers. House drains first emptied into a sump or cesspit into which solid matter settled while water flowed out into the street drains. Very long drainage channels were provided at intervals with sumps for cleaning. It is a wonder of archaeology that “little heaps of material, mostly sand, have frequently been found lying alongside drainage channels, which shows… that the debris was not always carted away when the drain was cleared.”
FROM ERNEST MACKAY, Early Indus Civilisation, 1948.

Drainage systems were not unique to the larger cities, but were found in smaller settlements as well. At Lothal for example, while houses were built of mud bricks, drains were made of burnt bricks.

(a)              How were street drains used in Harappa?                                                                                                2
(b)              What was considered as wonder of archaeology in drainage system?                                      2
(c)               Name the materials used for drainage system.                                                                             2
(d)              How was construction of houses interconnected with drains?                                                   2                                          

11.  Travelling with the Mughal army

Bernier often travelled with the army. This is an excerpt from his description of the army’s march to Kashmir:
I am expected to keep two good Turkoman horses and I also take with me a powerful Persian camel and driver, a groom for my horses, a cook and a servant to go before my horse with a flask of water in his hand, according to the custom of the country. I am also provided with every useful article, such as a tent of moderate size, a carpet, a portable bed made of four very strong but light canes, a pillow, a mattress, round leather table-cloth, three small bags with culinary utensils which are all placed in a large bag, and this bag is again carried in a very capacious and strong double sack likewise contains the provisions, linen and wearing apparel, both of master and servants. I have taken care to lay in a stock of excellent rice for five or six days’ consumption, of sweet biscuits flavoured with anise (a herb), of limes and sugar. Nor have I forgotten a linen bag with its small iron hook for the purpose of suspending and draining dahi or curds; nothing being considered so refreshing in this country as lemonade and dahi.
(a) Who was Bernier? When did he come to India? What were responsibilities given to him by the ruler?                                                                                                                                                              3
(b) What were the essential articles carried by him?                                                                               3
(c) Who were sent with him for helping the traveller?                                                                            2

Nuts like a man’s head
            The following is how Ibn Buttuta described the coconut:
These trees are among the most peculiar trees in kind and most astonishing in habit. They look exactly like date-palms, without any difference between them except that the one produces nuts as its fruits and the other produces dates. The nut of a coconut tree resembles a man’s head, for in it are what look like two eyes and a mouth, and the inside of it when it is green looks like the brain, and attached to it is a fibre which looks like hair. They make from this cords with which they sew up ships instead of (using) iron nails, and they (also) make from it cables for vessels.

a)         What are the comparisons that Ibn-Battuta makes about look of coconut?                              2
b)        Do you think his comparisons are appropriate? Why?                                                                2
c)         How did he convey a sense that this fruit is unusual?                                                                  2
d)        What was the other commodity which he saw unusual in India? Why?                                                2         
20.  On the outline map of India name and mark any five craft centres of Indus Valley Civilisation.         5
On the outline map of India mark the following cities under vijayanagar rule.
(a)              Bidar,
(b)              Golconda,
(c)                Bijapur,
(d)              Chandragiri,
(e)              Kolar,

Sample paper for board Exam (Class -X history and civics)

Pre- Board Examination, 2012-13
Class: X                                                                                                                 Time: 3 Hours
Subject: Social Science                                                                                         Marks: 100
1.      In 1861------------ was proclaimed king of united Italy.                                                                        1
a.       Victor Emmanuel II
b.      Otto von Bismark
c.       William I
d.      William II
2.      Who was the president of Indian National Congress during Lahore Congress Session-1929?     1
a.       Gandhiji
b.      Motilal Nehru
c.       Subhas Chandra Bose
d.      Jawaharlal Nehru.
3.      This political party is not found in Jammu& Kashmir                                                                  1
a.       Jammu & Kashmir  National Conference
b.      Jammu & Kashmir  National Panthers Party
c.       Jammu & Kashmir  Peoples’ Democratic Party
d.      Jammu & Kashmir  National Republican Party
4.      Which of the following ideas democratic governments have successfully eliminated?                    1
a.       Religious Conflicts
b.      Economic Inequalities
c.       Political Inequalities
d.      Caste Inequalities
5.      In China Communist Party maintains monopoly over political power which linked to which
kind of challenge?                                                                                                                                 1
a.       Economic Challenge
b.      Foundational Challenge
c.       Deepening Challenge
d.      Challenge of Expansion
6.      Why was 1848 described as the year of Revolution of the Liberals? Explain any three
reasons.                                                                                                                                                3
7.      Explain any three guidelines that can be kept in mind while devising political reforms
 in India.                                                                                                                                               3
8.      How does democracy produce an accountable, responsive and legitimate government?              3
9.      What were the three suggestions often made to reform political parties in India?                         3
10.  Mention any six practices introduced by the revolutionaries to create sense of collective
 identity among the French.                                                                                                       .5x6=3
11.  How did various social groups take part in the Non Cooperation movement? Explain
participation of any three social groups.                                                                                     3
12.  Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans? Explain the reasons in five points.                5
13.  How did people belong to different communities and languages develop a sense of
collective belonging in India? Explain in five points.                                                                    5
14.  How do pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics? Is their influence
healthy?                                                                                                                                                5
15.  Briefly explain policies and programmes of any five national political parties of India.                  5
16.  On the given political map of India identify the following places                                                  2
a.       The place associated with a massacre in 1919
b.      The place associated with salt march
On the given political outline map of India locate and mark the following places.
a.       Champaran
b.      Nagpur

Outcomes of democracy and challenges to democracy

Chapter VII

Outcomes of Democracy

Is democracy a better form of government when compared with dictatorship or any other alternative?

1.      Democracy is better because it promotes equality among citizens.
2.      Democracy is better because it enhances the dignity of the individual
3.      Democracy is better because it improves the quality of decision making
4.      Democracy is better because it provides a method to resolve conflicts
5.      Democracy is better because it allows room to correct mistakes.

Is the democratic government efficient? Is it effective?

1.      Imagine that other form of government may take decisions very fast. But it may take decisions which are not accepted by the people and may therefore face problems.
2.      Democracy is based on the idea of deliberation and negotiation. So, some delay is bound to take place.
3.      In contrast, the democratic government will take more time to follow procedures before arriving at a decision.
4.      But because it has followed procedures, its decisions may be both more acceptable to the people and more effective.
5.      So, the cost of time that democracy pays is perhaps worth it.

Democracy is Accountable, responsive and legitimate government

1.      Democracy ensures that decision making will be based on norms and procedures. So, a citizen has the right and the means to examine the process of decision making. This is known as transparency. Democracy follows procedures and is accountable to the people.
2.      Democratic governments have a very good record when it comes to sharing information with citizens and much better than any non-democratic regime in this respect. Democracy is attentive to the needs and demands of the people and is largely free of corruption.
3.    There is one respect in which democratic government is certainly better than its alternatives: democratic government is legitimate government. It may be slow, less efficient, not always very responsive or clean. But a democratic government is people’s own government.

Economic growth and development

1.       Economic development depends on several factors: country’s population size, global situation, cooperation from other countries, economic priorities adopted by the country, etc.
2.      However, the difference in the rates of economic development between less developed countries with dictatorships and democracies is negligible.
3.      Overall, we cannot say that democracy is a guarantee of economic development. But we can expect democracy not to lag behind dictatorships in economic development.

Democracy reduces economic inequality and poverty

1.      Democracies have growing economic inequalities. A small number of ultra-rich enjoy a lion share of wealth and those at the bottom of the society have very little to depend upon and find very difficult to meet their basic needs of life, such as food, clothing, house, education and health.
2.      Democratically elected governments address the question of poverty by making various welfare schemes to remove poverty.
3.      Democracies not only making welfare schemes but also give reservations for socially and economically backward people in jobs, election and educational institutions.

Democracy Accommodates of social diversity

1.      Democracies usually develop a procedure to accommodate various social groups. This reduces the possibility of social tensions becoming explosive or violent.
2.      No society can fully and permanently resolve conflicts among different groups. But democracy is best to handle social differences, divisions and conflicts.  
3.      But the example of Sri Lanka reminds us that a democracy must fulfill two conditions in order to achieve accommodation of social divisions,
a.       It is necessary to understand that democracy is not simply rule by majority opinion. The majority always needs to work with the minority so that governments function to represent the general view.
b.      It is also necessary that rule by majority does not become rule by majority community in terms of religion or race or linguistic group, etc. Rule by majority means rule by majority’s choice.

Democracy promotes Dignity and freedom of the citizens

1.      Democracy stands much superior to any other form of government in promoting dignity and freedom of the individual by providing Fundamental Rights. Every individual wants to receive respect from fellow beings.
2.      The passion for respect and freedom are the basis of democracy. Democracies throughout the world have recognised this, at least in principle. This has been achieved in various degrees in various democracies.
3.      Take the case of dignity of women. Most societies across the world were historically male dominated societies.
4.      Long struggles by women have created some sensitivity today that respect to and equal treatment of women are necessary ingredients of a democratic society.
5.      Democracy in India has strengthened the claims of the disadvantaged and discriminated castes for equal status and equal opportunity.
Expectation from democracy never gets over.

1.      As people get some benefits of democracy, they ask for more and want to make democracy even better.
2.      That is why, when we ask people about the way democracy functions, they will always come up with more expectations, and many complaints.
3.      The fact that people are complaining is itself a testimony to the success of democracy: it shows that people have developed awareness and the ability to expect and to look critically at power holders and the high and the mighty.


Challenges to Democracy

What is a challenge?

A challenge is not just any problem. We usually call only those difficulties a ‘challenge’ which are significant and which can be overcome.
A challenge is a difficulty that carries within it an opportunity for progress. Once we overcome a challenge we go up to a higher level than before.

Different countries face different kinds of challenges.

1.       Foundational challenge -This involves bringing down the existing non-democratic regime, keeping military away from controlling government and establishing a sovereign and functional state.
2.      Challenge of expansion-This involves applying the basic principle of democratic government across all the regions, different social groups and various institutions. Ensuring greater power to local governments, extension of federal principle to all the units of the federation, inclusion of women and minority groups, etc., falls under this challenge.
3.      Deepening of democracy –This is faced by every democracy in one form or another. This involves strengthening of the institutions and practices of democracy by more people’s participation and control.

Some broad guidelines that can be kept in mind while devising ways and means for political reforms in India:

1.    It is legal ways of reforming politics- law has an important role to play in political reform. Carefully devised changes in law can help to discourage wrong political practices and encourage good ones. (But legal-constitutional changes by themselves cannot overcome challenges to democracy. Democratic reforms are to be carried out mainly by political activists, parties, movements and politically conscious citizens.)
2.    Any legal change must carefully look at what results it will have on politics. Laws that give political actors incentives to do good things have more chances of working. The best laws are those which empower people to carry out democratic reforms. (The Right to Information Act is a good example of a law that empowers the people to find out what is happening in government and act as watchdogs of democracy)
3.    Democratic reforms are to be brought about principally through political practice. Therefore, the main focus of political reforms should be to increase and improve the quality of political participation by ordinary citizens.
4.    Any proposal for political reforms should think not only about what is a good solution but also about who will implement it and how. Measures that rely on democratic movements, citizens’ organizations and the media are likely to succeed.
5.    Let us keep these general guidelines in mind and look at some specific instances of challenges to democracy that require some measure of reform.

Old Definition of Democracy

1.      The rulers elected by the people must take all the major decisions
2.      Elections must offer a choice and fair opportunity to the people to change the current rulers
3.      This choice and opportunity should be available to all the people on an equal basis
4.      The exercise of this choice must lead to a government limited by basic rules of the constitution and citizens’ rights.

New and modern definition of democracy

1.    Democracy not only should provide political rights but also some social and economic rights that a democracy should offer to its citizens.
2.    Power sharing between governments and social groups is necessary in a democracy.
3.    Respect for minority voice is necessary for democracy.
4.    Eliminating discrimination based on caste, religion and gender is important in a democracy.
5.    Democracy must bring all positive outcomes like accountability, responsive, reducing poverty etc.